Rather than getting **a z80 book,** I decided to create my own **cheat sheet **to learn z80, as you can see its been very useful, so I thought i would share it.

**You can download a printable PDF version here **

**Registers**

All processors have small memory banks located on the processor itself. These are for high speed data transfer. The processor loads a value from the RAM onto the high-speed data location, manipulates it, and then puts it back in its place in the RAM.

These small, high speed data locations are called registers. They have letter names to distinguish them. Right now, we will learn a few of the most commonly used registers: a, b, c, d, e, h, and l.

On the z80 they are 1 byte long (8 bits, 8 1’s and 0’s); however, they can be put into pairs (bc, de, and hl) so that then they can hold two bytes, or a word. These registers are called Register Pairs because it is two registers put together. They can only be grouped into bc, de, or hl. Bh and da don’t exist.

The a register is called the Accumulator because it is used the most, just as hl is called the Address Register Pair because it is used for referencing memory addresses mostly.

Putting parentheses around a registered pair signifies that you are talking about the byte at the *address* held by the register pair.

ld hl,$8000 // get the address $8000 into HL ld a,($4000) // get the value stored at the $4000

There are two more register pairs named **IX **and **IY **which perform as index registers. Unlike all the other paired registers, **IX **and **IY **only work in 16 bits meaning there are no 8 bit half pairs.

**IX **and **IY **are called an index register which means you can add an offset to their contents.

ld iy,Object // get the address of the object ld a,(iy+5) // get the 5th byte inside the object

You can do exactly the same with **IX**

**Conditionals**

**Zero (Z, NZ) **a subtraction resulted in a zero, a decrement ended up being zero, or there was zero difference between the two values compared.**Carry (C, NC)** arg1 > a Carry is set, arg1 <= a Carry is not set, the carry flag tells us the resultant value was too big to be stored in the register.**Parity (PO, PE)** byte has even number PE “even parity”, odd number of 1 digits “odd parity” PO, Parity Overflow = 1 when even parity, 0 = odd parity.**Sign (P/M)** P = not sign, M = sign (the number/result is negative)

Here are some general rules on using CP (compare)

**Unsigned**

- If A == N, then Z flag is set.
- If A != N, then Z flag is not set
- If A < N, then C flag is set.
- If A >= N, then C flag is not set

**Signed**

- If A == N, then Z flag is set.
- If A != N, then Z flag is not set
- If A < N, then S and P/V are different.
- if A >= N, then S and P/V are the same.

**Z8O Instructions**

opcode |
t-states |
explanation |

ADC A,(HL) | 7 | Add with carry location (HL) to acccumulator. |

ADC A,(IX+d) | 19 | Add with carry location (IX+d) to accumulator. |

ADC A,(IY+d) | 19 | Add with carry location (IY+d) to accumulator. |

ADC A,n | 7 | Add with carry value n to accumulator. |

ADC A,r | 4 | Add with carry register r to accumulator. |

ADC HL,BC | 15 | Add with carry register pair BC to HL. |

ADC HL,DE | 15 | Add with carry register pair DE to HL. |

ADC HL,HL | 15 | Add with carry register pair HL to HL. |

ADC HL,SP | 15 | Add with carry register pair SP to HL. |

ADD A,(HL) | 7 | Add location (HL) to acccumulator. |

ADD A,(IX+d) | 19 | Add location (IX+d) to accumulator. |

ADD A,(IY+d) | 19 | Add location (IY+d) to accumulator. |

ADD A,n | 7 | Add value n to accumulator. |

ADD A,r | 4 | Add register r to accumulator. |

ADD HL,BC | 11 | Add register pair BC to HL. |

ADD HL,DE | 11 | Add register pair DE to HL. |

ADD HL,HL | 11 | Add register pair HL to HL. |

ADD HL,SP | 11 | Add register pair SP to HL. |

ADD IX,BC | 15 | Add register pair BC to IX. |

ADD IX,DE | 15 | Add register pair DE to IX. |

ADD IX,IX | 15 | Add register pair IX to IX. |

ADD IX,SP | 15 | Add register pair SP to IX. |

ADD IY,BC | 15 | Add register pair BC to IY. |

ADD IY,DE | 15 | Add register pair DE to IY. |

ADD IY,IY | 15 | Add register pair IY to IY. |

ADD IY,SP | 15 | Add register pair SP to IY. |

AND (HL) | 7 | Logical AND of value at location (HL) to accumulator. |

AND (IX+d) | 19 | Logical AND of value at location (IX+d) to accumulator. |

AND (IY+d) | 19 | Logical AND of value at location (IY+d) to accumulator. |

AND n | 7 | Logical AND of value n to accumulator. |

AND r | 4 | Logical AND of register r to accumulator. |

BIT b,(HL) | 12 | Test bit b of location (HL). |

BIT b,(IX+d) | 20 | Test bit b of location (IX+d). |

BIT b,(IY+d) | 20 | Test bit b of location (IY+d). |

BIT b,r | 8 | Test bit b of register r. |

CALL cc,nn | 17,10 | Call subroutine at location nn if condition CC is true. |

CALL nn | 17 | Call subroutine at location. |

CCF | 4 | Complement carry flag. |

CP (HL) | 7 | Compare value at location (HL) with accumulator. |

CP (IX+d) | 19 | Compare value at location (IX+d) with accumulator. |

CP (IY+d) | 19 | Compare value at location (IY+d) with accumulator. |

CP n | 7 | Compare value n with accumulator. |

CP r | 4 | Compare register r with accumulator. |

CPD | 16 | Comapre location (HL) and acc., decrement HL and BC, |

CPDR | 21,16 | Perform a CPD and repeat until BC=0. |

CPI | 16 | Compare location (HL) and acc., incr HL, decr BC. |

CPIR | 21,16 | Perform a CPI and repeat until BC=0. |

CPL | 4 | Complement accumulator (1’s complement). |

DAA | 4 | Decimal adjust accumulator. |

DEC (HL) | 11 | Decrement value at location (HL). |

DEC (IX+d) | 23 | Decrement value at location (IX+d). |

DEC (IY+d) | 23 | Decrement value at location (IY+d). |

DEC BC | 6 | Decrement register pair BC. |

DEC DE | 6 | Decrement register pair DE. |

DEC HL | 6 | Decrement register pair HL. |

DEC IX | 10 | Decrement IX. |

DEC IY | 10 | Decrement IY. |

DEC r | 4 | Decrement register r. |

DEC SP | 6 | Decrement register pair SP. |

DI | 4 | Disable interrupts. (except NMI at 0066h) |

DJNZ n | 13,8 | Decrement B and jump relative if B<>0. |

EI | 4 | Enable interrupts. |

EX (SP),HL | 19 | Exchange the location (SP) and HL. |

EX (SP),IX | 23 | Exchange the location (SP) and IX. |

EX (SP),IY | 23 | Exchange the location (SP) and IY. |

EX AF,AF’ | 4 | Exchange the contents of AF and AF’. |

EX DE,HL | 4 | Exchange the contents of DE and HL. |

EXX | 4 | Exchange the contents of BC,DE,HL with BC’,DE’,HL’. |

HALT | 4 | Halt computer and wait for interrupt. |

IM 0 | 8 | Set interrupt mode 0. (instruction on data bus by int device) |

IM 1 | 8 | Set interrupt mode 1. (rst 38) |

IM 2 | 8 | Set interrupt mode 2. (vector jump) |

IN A,(n) | 11 | Load the accumulator with input from device n. |

IN r,(c) | 12 | Load the register r with input from device (C). |

INC (HL) | 11 | Increment location (HL). |

INC (IX+d) | 23 | Increment location (IX+d). |

INC (IY+d) | 23 | Increment location (IY+d). |

INC BC | 6 | Increment register pair BC. |

INC DE | 6 | Increment register pair DE. |

INC HL | 6 | Increment register pair HL. |

INC IX | 10 | Increment IX. |

INC IY | 10 | Increment IY. |

INC r | 4 | Increment register r. |

INC SP | 6 | Increment register pair SP. |

IND | 16 | (HL)=Input from port (C). Decrement HL and B. |

INDR | 21,16 | Perform an IND and repeat until B=0. |

INI | 16 | (HL)=Input from port (C). HL=HL+1. B=B-1. |

INIR | 21,16 | Perform an INI and repeat until B=0. |

JP (HL) | 4 | Unconditional jump to location (HL). |

JP (IX) | 8 | Unconditional jump to location (IX). |

JP (IY) | 8 | Unconditional jump to location (IY). |

JP cc,nn | 10 | Jump to location nn if condition cc is true. |

JP nn | 10 | Unconditional jump to location nn |

JR C,n | 12,7 | Jump relative to PC+n if carry=1. |

JR n | 12 | Unconditional jump relative to PC+n. |

JR NC,n | 12,7 | Jump relative to PC+n if carry=0. |

JR NZ,n | 12,7 | Jump relative to PC+n if non zero (Z=0). |

JR Z,n | 12,7 | Jump relative to PC+n if zero (Z=1). |

LD (BC),A | 7 | Load location (BC) with accumulator. |

LD (DE),A | 7 | Load location (DE) with accumulator. |

LD (HL),n | 10 | Load location (HL) with value n. |

LD (HL),r | 7 | Load location (HL) with register r. |

LD (IX+d),n | 19 | Load location (IX+d) with value n. |

LD (IX+d),r | 19 | Load location (IX+d) with register r. |

LD (IY+d),n | 19 | Load location (IY+d) with value n. |

LD (IY+d),r | 19 | Load location (IY+d) with register r. |

LD (nn),A | 13 | Load location (nn) with accumulator. |

LD (nn),BC | 20 | Load location (nn) with register pair BC. |

LD (nn),DE | 20 | Load location (nn) with register pair DE. |

LD (nn),HL | 16 | Load location (nn) with HL. |

LD (nn),IX | 20 | Load location (nn) with IX. |

LD (nn),IY | 20 | Load location (nn) with IY. |

LD (nn),SP | 20 | Load location (nn) with register pair SP. |

LD A,(BC) | 7 | Load accumulator with value at location (BC). |

LD A,(DE) | 7 | Load accumulator with value at location (DE). |

LD A,(nn) | 13 | Load accumulator with value at location nn. |

LD A,I | 9 | Load accumulator with I.(interrupt vector register) |

LD A,R | 9 | Load accumulator with R.(memory refresh register) |

LD BC,(nn) | 20 | Load register pair BC with value at location (nn). |

LD BC,nn | 10 | Load register pair BC with nn. |

LD DE,(nn) | 20 | Load register pair DE with value at location (nn). |

LD DE,nn | 10 | Load register pair DE with nn. |

LD HL,(nn) | 16 | Load HL with value at location (nn). (L-first) |

LD HL,nn | 10 | Load register pair HL with nn. |

LD I,A | 9 | Load I with accumulator. |

LD IX,(nn) | 20 | Load IX with value at location (nn). |

LD IX,nn | 14 | Load IX with value nn. |

LD IY,(nn) | 20 | Load IY with value at location (nn). |

LD IY,nn | 14 | Load IY with value nn. |

LD r,(HL) | 7 | Load register r with value at location (HL). |

LD r,(IX+d) | 19 | Load register r with value at location (IX+d). |

LD r,(IY+d) | 19 | Load register r with value at location (IY+d). |

LD R,A | 9 | Load R with accumulator. |

LD r,n | 7 | Load register r with value n. |

LD r,r’ | 4 | Load register r with register r’. |

LD SP,(nn) | 20 | Load register pair SP with value at location (nn). |

LD SP,HL | 6 | Load SP with HL. |

LD SP,IX | 10 | Load SP with IX. |

LD SP,IY | 10 | Load SP with IY. |

LD SP,nn | 10 | Load register pair SP with nn. |

LDD | 16 | Load location (DE) with location (HL), decrement DE,HL,BC. |

LDDR | 21 | ,16 Perform an LDD and repeat until BC=0. |

LDI | 16 | Load location (DE) with location (HL), incr DE,HL; decr BC. |

LDIR | 21 | ,17 Perform an LDI and repeat until BC=0. |

NEG | 8 | Negate accumulator (2’s complement). |

NOP | 4 | No operation. |

OR (HL) | 7 | Logical OR of value at location (HL) and accumulator. |

OR (IX+d) | 19 | Logical OR of value at location (IX+d) and accumulator. |

OR (IY+d) | 19 | Logical OR of value at location (IY+d) and accumulator. |

OR n | 7 | Logical OR of value n and accumulator. |

OR r | 4 | Logical OR of register r and accumulator. |

OTDR | 21,16 | Perform an OUTD and repeat until B=0. |

OTIR | 21,16 | Perform an OTI and repeat until B=0. |

OUT (C),r | 12 | Load output port (C) with register r. |

OUT (n),A | 11 | Load output port (n) with accumulator. |

OUTD | 16 | Load output port (C) with (HL), decrement HL and B. |

OUTI | 16 | Load output port (C) with (HL), incr HL, decr B. |

POP AF | 10 | Load register pair AF with top of stack. |

POP BC | 10 | Load register pair BC with top of stack. |

POP DE | 10 | Load register pair DE with top of stack. |

POP HL | 10 | Load register pair HL with top of stack. |

POP IX | 14 | Load IX with top of stack. |

POP IY | 14 | Load IY with top of stack. |

PUSH AF | 11 | Load register pair AF onto stack. |

PUSH BC | 11 | Load register pair BC onto stack. |

PUSH DE | 11 | Load register pair DE onto stack. |

PUSH HL | 11 | Load register pair HL onto stack. |

PUSH IX | 15 | Load IX onto stack. |

PUSH IY | 15 | Load IY onto stack. |

RES b,(HL) | 15 | Reset bit b in value at location (HL). |

RES b,(IX+d) | 23 | Reset bit b in value at location (IX+d). |

RES b,(IY+d) | 23 | Reset bit b in value at location (IY+d). |

RES b,r | 8 | Reset bit b of register r. |

RET | 10 | Return from subroutine. |

RET cc | 11,5 | Return from subroutine if condition cc is true. |

RETI | 14 | Return from interrupt. |

RETN | 14 | Return from non-maskable interrupt. |

RL (HL) | 15 | Rotate left through value at location (HL). |

RL (IX+d) | 23 | Rotate left through value at location (IX+d). |

RL (IY+d) | 23 | Rotate left through value at location (IY+d). |

RL r | 8 | Rotate left through register r. |

RLA | 4 | Rotate left accumulator through carry. |

RLC (HL) | 15 | Rotate location (HL) left circular. |

RLC (IX+d) | 23 | Rotate location (IX+d) left circular. |

RLC (IY+d) | 23 | Rotate location (IY+d) left circular. |

RLC r | 8 | Rotate register r left circular. |

RLCA | 4 | Rotate left circular accumulator. |

RLD | 18 | Rotate digit left and right between accumulator and (HL). |

RR (HL) | 15 | Rotate right through carry location (HL). |

RR (IX+d) | 23 | Rotate right through carry location (IX+d). |

RR (IY+d) | 23 | Rotate right through carry location (IY+d). |

RR r | 8 | Rotate right through carry register r. |

RRA | 4 | Rotate right accumulator through carry. |

RRC (HL) | 15 | Rotate value at location (HL) right circular. |

RRC (IX+d) | 23 | Rotate value at location (IX+d) right circular. |

RRC (IY+d) | 23 | Rotate value at location (HL+d) right circular. |

RRC r | 8 | Rotate register r right circular. |

RRCA | 4 | Rotate right circular accumulator. |

RRD | 18 | Rotate digit right and left between accumulator and (HL). |

RST 00h | 11 | Restart to location 0000h. |

RST 08h | 11 | Restart to location 0008h. |

RST 10h | 11 | Restart to location 0010h. |

RST 18h | 11 | Restart to location 0018h. |

RST 20h | 11 | Restart to location 0020h. |

RST 28h | 11 | Restart to location 0028h. |

RST 30h | 11 | Restart to location 0030h. |

RST 38h | 11 | Restart to location 0038h. |

SBC A,(HL) | 7 | Subtract value at location (HL) from accu. with carry. |

SBC A,(IX+d) | 19 | Subtract value at location (IX+d) from accu. with carry. |

SBC A,(IY+d) | 19 | Subtract value at location (IY+d) from accu. with carry. |

SBC A,n | 7 | Subtract value n from accumulator with carry. |

SBC A,r | 4 | Subtract register r from accumulator with carry. |

SBC HL,BC | 15 | Subtract register pair BC from HL with carry. |

SBC HL,DE | 15 | Subtract register pair DE from HL with carry. |

SBC HL,HL | 15 | Subtract register pair HL from HL with carry. |

SBC HL,SP | 15 | Subtract register pair SP from HL with carry. |

SCF | 4 | Set carry flag (C=1). |

SET b,(HL) | 15 | Set bit b of location (HL). |

SET b,(IX+d) | 23 | Set bit b of location (IX+d). |

SET b,(IY+d) | 23 | Set bit b of location (IY+d). |

SET b,r | 8 | Set bit b of register r. |

SLA (HL) | 15 | Shift value at location (HL) left arithmetic. |

SLA (IX+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IX+d) left arithmetic. |

SLA (IY+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IY+d) left arithmetic. |

SLA r | 8 | Shift register r left arithmetic. |

SRA (HL) | 15 | Shift value at location (HL) right arithmetic. |

SRA (IX+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IX+d) right arithmetic. |

SRA (IY+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IY+d) right arithmetic. |

SRA r | 8 | Shift register r right arithmetic. |

SRL (HL) | 15 | Shift value at location (HL) right logical. |

SRL (IX+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IX+d) right logical. |

SRL (IY+d) | 23 | Shift value at location (IY+d) right logical. |

SRL r | 8 | Shift register r right logical. |

SUB (HL) | 7 | Subtract location (HL) from accumulator. |

SUB (IX+d) | 19 | Subtract location (IX+d) from accumulator. |

SUB (IY+d) | 19 | Subtract location (IY+d) from accumulator. |

SUB n | 7 | Subtract value n from accumulator. |

SUB r | 4 | Subtract register r from accumulator. |

XOR (HL) | 7 | Exclusive OR value at location (HL) and accumulator. |

XOR (IX+d) | 19 | Exclusive OR value at location (IX+d) and accumulator. |

XOR (IY+d) | 19 | Exclusive OR value at location (IY+d) and accumulator. |

XOR n | 7 | Exclusive OR value n and accumulator. |

XOR r | 4 | Exclusive OR register r and accumulator. |

EXTENDED OPCODES |
||

LDIX LDIRX LDDX LDDRX | 21/16 | LDDX/LDDRX advance DE by incrementing it (like LDI), while HL is decremented (like LDD). |

LDWS | 14 | Copies the byte pointed to by HL to the address pointed to by DE and increments only L and D. |

LDPIRX | 21/16 | Similar to LDIRX except the source byte address is not just HL, but is obtained by using the top 13 bits of HL and the lower 3 bits of DE and HL does not increment during whole loop |

OUTINB | 16 | Behaves like OUTI, but doesn’t decrement B. |

MUL D,E | 16 | Multiplies D by E, storing 16 bit result into DE |

ADD HL,A, ADD DE,A, ADD BC,A | 8 | Add accumulator to reg pair |

ADD HL,$im16 ADD DE,$im16 ADD BC,$im16 | 16 | Add 16 bit immediate number to reg pair |

SWAPNIB | 8 | Swaps the high and low nibbles of the accumulator. |

MIRROR A | 8 | Mirrors (reverses the order) of bits in the accumulator. |

PUSH $im16 | 23 | Push an address on the stack |

NEXTREG $im8,$im8 NEXTREG $im8,A | 20 17 | Sets hardware registers |

PIXELDN | 8 | Takes E and D as the X,Y coordinate of a point and calculates the address of the byte containing this pixel in the pixel area of standard ULA screen 0, storing it in HL. |

PIXELAD | 8 | Updates the address in HL to move down by one line of pixels. |

SETAE | 8 | takes the bit number to set from E (only the low 3 bits) and sets whole A to value of that bit, but counted from top to bottom (E=0 will produce A:=$80, E=7 will produce A:=$01). This works as pixel mask for ULA bitmap modes, when E is 0..255 x-coordinate. |

TEST $im8 | 11 | Similar to CP, but performs an AND instead of a subtraction. |

BSLA DE,B BSRA DE,B BSRL DE,B BSRF DE,B BRLC DE,B |
8 | Shift instructions use only bits 4..0 of B, BSLA shifts DE left, BSRA/BSRL/BSRF shifts DE right in arithmetic/logical/fill-one way. BRLC rotates DE left by B places, uses only bits 3..0 of B (to rotate right, use B=16-places). |

JP (C) | 13 | The JP (C) sets bottom 14 bits of current PC* to value read from I/O port: (can be used to execute code block read from a disk stream |

Very useful, thanks! 🙂

Thanks for this, very useful to print and have it handy. By the way i believe that PIXELAD and PIXELDN are vice versa.

This online spreadsheet version is pretty comprehensive.

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Nmxx0RG28bpMtmUYVaomRWnvBi4ilUd4qqWOM_V5AGE

It can be found on the very useful Discord forum for ZX Spectrum Next.

https://discord.com/channels/556228195767156758/570573540286267406/571701187322314755

Yes they are very good sources, however for me, there is nothing like some paper in your hands to flick through, and I can imagine with some on a single screen web based sources are harder to use.